Tests for the Male
Semen analysis is the cornerstone investigation of male fertility. In contrast to female fertility that is mostly attributed to physical conditions rather than a direct assessment of the oocytes (at a prognostic level), in males we have the ability to assess and evaluate multiple parameters, that are crucial in reproduction directly on sperm, through the ability of continuous sperm regeneration from renewable cell lines. Male fertility assessment ranges from basic parameters to specialized tests of genetic integrity and functional properties, such as sperm-egg interaction.
Our ability to investigate the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of male fertility, grants us the opportunity to optimize sperm parameters and conception rates for successful reproduction, according to the individual fertility dynamics, or even eliminate small factors that pose inhibitory actions on reproduction (presence of pathogens, oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation).
Other clusters of tests such as biochemical and hormonal testing and molecular investigations, work either prognostically or diagnostically to justify functional disorders of the male reproductive system, always in combination with the clinical examination and the parallel guidance of a specialized Urologist-Andrologist.
Basic & Advanced Sperm Tests
- Semen Analysis: Evaluation of basic and analytical sperm parameters based on the latest criteria and guidelines from the World Health Organization (W.H.O.). The analysis includes evaluation of seminal fluid characteristics, concentration and total sperm count, motility and temporal variability, vitality, detailed morphological assessment, identification and quantification of round cells, determination of aggregations and agglutinations (antisperm antibodies)
- Oxidative & Reductive stress: Testing for possible disturbance of the balanced production and inactivation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that affect sperm quality and fertility.
- Sperm DNA fragmentation: Assessing the genetic integrity of spermatozoa and consequently the spermatozoa ability to fertilize the oocyte and promote development of a healthy, thriving fetus.
- Sperm DNA fragmentation on Functional Sperm: Assessing the genetic integrity of spermatozoa following laboratory processing and isolation of the functional sperm. The final evaluated population represents sperm that are most likely to interact with the egg during normal reproduction or in assisted reproduction procedures.
- Microscopic examination for the presence of pathogens to detect and identify pathogens in the reproductive system (microbes, fungi, granules, Gram and Neisseria staining)
- Sperm microbiology assessment and culture for the detection and identification of pathogens in the male reproductive system (aerobic and anaerobic culture, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp, Ureaplasma spp identification)
- Biochemical basic test: Investigation and quantification of biochemical markers in the seminal fluid that reflect functionality of male accessory glands and reproductive structures such as the epididymis, the seminal vesicles and the prostate and their respective contribution to the overall reproductive capacity of the man (Alkaline Phosphatase, Acid Phosphatase, Fructose, Zinc, Neutral α-Glucosidase)
- Biochemical advanced test: Investigation and quantification of biochemical markers in the seminal fluid that reflect functionality of male accessory glands and reproductive structures such as the epididymis, the seminal vesicles and the prostate and their respective contribution to the overall reproductive capacity of the man (Alkaline Phosphatase, Acid Phosphatase, L-Carnitine, Citric acid, Fructose, Proteins, Zinc, Neutral α-Glucosidase)
- Sperm processing and activation test: To predict the rate of motile and functional sperm recovery in forthcoming assisted reproduction procedures, as well to determine the expected percentage of functional sperm that is anticipated to interact with the oocyte during natural reproduction.
- Sperm longevity test is performed by sperm suspension to culture media in laboratory conditions, reflecting its functionality in terms of maintaining temporal motility.
- HBA test (Hyaluronan Binding Assay): A qualitative assay and functional test of the sperm maturity and ability to interact and bind to the oocyte receptors.
- Antisperm Antibodies: Immunoassay for the presence of antibodies that cause agglutinations in the sperm, as a factor of infertility that may present following trauma, inflammation or surgery in the genital area.
- PCR screening for pathogens (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitaliym, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, Mycoplasma hominis, Haemophilus ducreyi, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2)
- Y chromosome microdeletions
- FISH on sperm – aneuploidy testing (13,16,18,21,22, X, Y)
- Karyotype (conventional and molecular with Array-CGH)
- Cystic Fibrosis Mutations (ΔF508, 80%, 90%, 99% of known prevalent mutations of the population)
- Testing for Genetic Diseases (α-Thalassemia, β-Thalassemia, Fragile X Syndrome, Achondroplasia, Hypochondroplasia, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Muscular Dystrophy, Deafness)
- Chromosomal Structural Abnormalities / Deletions
- Genetic markers for Hereditary Cancer (colon, prostate, pancreatic, stomach, thyroid, kidney cancer and melanoma)
- Urinalysis and microbiology culture
- Hormonal Profile of Male Fertility (Basic tests): FSH, LH, PRL, Testo, TSH
- Hormonal Profile of Male Fertility (Advanced Tests): FSH, LH, PRL, Testo, FTesto, TSH, E2, E1, PRG, DHEA-S, DHT, PSA
- Antipaternal Antibodies (blood sampling from both partners)
- Retrograde ejaculation testing
- Complete Blood Count & Hematological Examinations
- Microbiological examination
- Biochemical tests
- Hormonal Tests
- Thyroid function
- Lipids and Lipoproteins
- Vitamin Sufficiency
- Food Intolerance & Allergies